In theory the laser turntable eliminates the possibility of scratches and attendant degradation of the sound, but its expense limits use primarily to digital archiving of analog records. Various other laser-based turntables were tried during the s, but while a laser reads the groove very accurately, since it does not touch the record, the dust that vinyl naturally attracts due to static charge is not cleaned from the groove, worsening sound quality in casual use compared to conventional stylus playback.
For the first several decades of disc record manufacturing, sound was recorded directly on to the master disc also called the matrix , sometimes just the master at the recording studio. A record cutter would engrave the grooves into the master disc. Early versions of these master discs were soft wax, and later a harder lacquer was used.
The mastering process was originally something of an art as the operator had to manually allow for the changes in sound which affected how wide the space for the groove needed to be on each rotation.
Sometimes the engineer would sign his work, or leave humorous or cryptic comments in the run-off groove area, where it was normal to scratch or stamp identifying codes to distinguish each master. The soft master known as a lacquer would then be electroplated with a metal, commonly a nickel alloy.
This and all subsequent metal copies were known as matrices. When this metal was removed from the lacquer master , it would be a negative master since it was a negative copy of the lacquer.
In the earliest days the negative master was used as a mold to press records sold to the public, but as demand for mass production of records grew, another step was added to the process. The metal master was then electroplated to create metal positive matrices, or "mothers".
From these negatives, stampers would be formed. The stampers would be used in hydraulic presses to mould the LP discs. The advantages of this system over the earlier more direct system included ability to make a large number of records quickly by using multiple stampers.
Also, more records could be produced from each master since molds would eventually wear out. Since the master was the unique source of the positive, made to produce the stampers, it was considered a library item. Accordingly, copy positives, required to replace worn positives, were made from unused early stampers. These were known as copy shells and were the physical equivalent of the first positive.
Singles are typically sold in plain paper wrappers, though EPs are often treated to a cover in similar style to an LP. LPs are universally packaged in cardboard covers with a paper liner protecting the delicate surface of the record. Also, with the advent of long-playing records, the album cover became more than just packaging and protection, and album cover art became an important part of the music marketing and consuming experience.
In the s it became more common to have picture covers on singles. However, many singles with picture sleeves especially from the s are sought out by collectors, and the sleeves alone can go for a high price. LPs can have embossed cover art with some sections being raised , an effect rarely seen on CD covers.
Records are made at large manufacturing plants, either owned by the major labels, or run by independent operators to whom smaller operations and independent labels could go for smaller runs. A band starting out might get a few hundred disks stamped, whereas big selling artists need the presses running full time to manufacture the hundreds of thousands of copies needed for the launch of a big album.
Records are generally sold through specialist shops, although some big chain stores also have record departments. Many records are sold from stock, but it is normal to place special orders for less common records. Stock is expensive, so only large city center stores can afford to have several copies of a record. Record companies organised their products into labels. These could either be subsidiary companies, or they could simply be just be a brand name. They also had Music for Pleasure and Classics for Pleasure as their economy labels.
In the 's successful musicians sought greater control, and one way they achieved this was with their own labels, though normally they were still operated by the large music corporations. In the late 's the anarchic punk rock movement gave rise to the independent record labels.
These were not owned or even distributed by the main corporations. These allowed smaller bands to step onto the ladder without having to conform to the rigid rules of the large corporations. Shellac 78's are brittle, and must be handled carefully. In the event of a 78 breaking, the pieces might remain loosely connected by the label and still be playable if the label holds them together, although there is a loud 'pop' with each pass over the crack, and breaking of the needle is likely.
Breakage was a very common accident in the shellac era. In the novel, Appointment in Samarra , the protagonist "broke one of his most favorites, Whiteman's Lady of the Evening He wanted to cry but could not.
Salinger's novel The Catcher in the Rye occurs after the adolescent protagonist buys a record for his younger sister but drops it and "it broke into pieces I damn near cried, it made me feel so terrible.
Vinyl records do not break easily, but the soft material is easily scratched. Vinyl readily acquires a static charge, attracting dust that is difficult to remove completely.
Dust and scratches cause audio clicks and pops. In extreme cases, they can cause the needle to skip over a series of grooves, or worse yet, cause the needle to skip backwards, creating a "locked groove" that repeats the same 1.
Locked grooves were not uncommon and were even heard occasionally in broadcasts. Vinyl records can be warped by heat, improper storage, or manufacturing defects such as excessively tight plastic shrinkwrap on the album cover.
A small degree of warp was common, and allowing for it was part of the art of turntable and tonearm design. As a practical matter, records provide excellent sound quality when treated with care.
They were the music source of choice for radio stations for decades, and the switch to digital music libraries by radio stations has not produced a noticeable improvement in sound quality. Casual ears cannot detect a difference in quality between a CD and a clean new LP played in a casual environment with background noise. There is controversy about the relative quality of CD sound and LP sound when the latter is heard under the very best conditions see Analog vs. Digital sound argument.
The limitations of recording and mastering techniques had a greater impact on sound quality than the limitations of the record itself, at least until the s. A further limitation of the record is that with a constant rotational speed, the quality of the sound may differ across the width of the record because the inner groove modulations are more compressed than those of the outer tracks. The result is that inner tracks have distortion that can be noticeable at higher recording levels. Another problem arises because of the geometry of the tonearm.
Master recordings are cut on a recording lathe, where a sapphire stylus moves radially across the blank, suspended on a straight track and driven by a lead screw. Most turntables use a pivoting tonearm, introducing side forces and pitch and azimuth errors, and thus distortion in the playback signal. Various mechanisms were devised in attempts to compensate, with varying degrees of success.
See more at phonograph. Even so, these early electronically recorded records used the exponential-horn phonograph see Orthophonic Victrola for reproduction. The RIAA has suggested the following acceptable losses: down to 20 kHz after one play, 18 kHz after three plays, 17 kHz after five, 16 kHz after eight, 14 kHz after fifteen, 13 kHz after twenty five, 10 kHz after thirty five, and 8 kHz after eighty plays.
While this degradation is possible if the record is played on improperly set up equipment, many collectors of LPs report excellent sound quality on LPs played many more times when using care and high quality equipment. Equipment of modest quality is relatively unaffected by these issues, as the amplifier and speaker will not reproduce such low frequencies, but high-fidelity turntable assemblies need careful design to minimise audible rumble.
Room vibrations will also be picked up if the pedestal - turntable - pickup arm - stylus system is not well damped. Tonearm skating forces and other perturbations are also picked up by the stylus. This is a form of frequency multiplexing as the "control signal" restoring force used to keep the stylus in the groove is carried by the same mechanism as the sound itself.
High fidelity sound equipment can reproduce tracking noise and rumble. During a quiet passage, woofer speaker cones can sometimes be seen to vibrate with the subsonic tracking of the stylus, at frequencies as low as about 0.
At high audible frequencies, hiss is generated as the stylus rubs against the vinyl, and from dirt and dust on the vinyl.
Due to recording mastering and manufacturing limitations, both high and low frequencies were removed from the first recorded signals by various formulae. With low frequencies, the stylus must swing a long way from side to side, requiring the groove to be wide, taking up more space and limiting the playing time of the record. At high frequencies noise is significant. These problems can be compensated for by using equalization to an agreed standard.
This simply means reducing the amplitude at low-frequencies, thus reducing the groove width required, and increasing the amplitude at high frequencies. The playback equipment boosts bass and cuts treble in a complementary way. The result should be that the sound is perceived to be without change, thus more music will fit the record, and noise is reduced.
Alone in a Crowd is an album by Catch 22, and the first release featuring the band's second lineup. The album features a song trilogy, "What Goes Around Comes Around", "Bloomfield Avenue" and "Neverending Story", which follows two young lovers who commit multiple acts of homicide on a cross-country spree before finally succumbing to their own personal demons.
Themes on the album include a longing for childhood and home, and a general feeling of alienation from the rest of the world. The end of the album features seven blank tracks, each 22 seconds long, followed by a bonus track that starts after 22 seconds of silence, bringing the album to a total of 22 tracks.
To promote the album, the band made a music video for "Point the Blame", the album's first single. However, due to financial problems, the video was never completed. Keep Your Receipt. Reel Big Fish.
It includes songs from their two previous releases; the aforementioned Turn the Radio Off and 's Everything Sucks, plus a cover of an Operation Ivy song, previously released on a tribute album. Specifically, it includes the music videos for the songs "Sell Out" and "Everything Sucks. There is also a mini-game called "Play the Axe with Reel Big Fish," during which the user uses their mouse to play horns along with the song "," although there was also another version of this game included with Launch Magazine issue 23, where "" was replaced with an instrumental version of "Brand New Song.
Open Your Eyes. Open Your Eyes is the fourth album by Goldfinger. It was released on May 7, Pray For Mojo. Mustard Plug. Pray for Mojo is the fourth album by Mustard Plug. Visit store. Item Information Condition:.
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Yes No. This is the Modern World. A Still Life Franchise. Al's War. Awkward Age. Beauty School Dropout.Hamburger Hop Presented by Buckhead Meat of Chicago and Blue Moon Brewing Company. In this production, burgers took the leading role. The popular Hamburger Hop, presented by Buckhead Meat of Chicago and Blue Moon Brewing Company, set the stage for the annual Bon Appétit presents Chicago Gourmet weekend. It was a star-studded night filled with tasty burgers, Blue Moon brews, Josh .