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They are, then, forced into a position where they are more or less doomed to repeat their wrongdoings, all the while remaining unaware of the cost that those wrongdoings will bring upon them. One scholar, David Quint  , has argued that this moment in Virgil's poem is illustrative of the therapeutic effects of oblivion—of the way that the act of forgetting secures the continuation of life. That is one interpretation, but the point seems to strike a more tragic note about the way humans are condemned to act out the same errors time and again because of enforced ignorance.
The Aeneid is, more generally, accepted as having a thoroughly tragic outlook on human existence a landmark study on this is W. Johnson's Darkness Visible ; see also P. Martindale Cambridge University Press: The concept of cyclical patterns is prominent in Indian religions , such as Jainism , Hinduism , Sikhism and Buddhism among others.
The important distinction is that events don't repeat endlessly but souls take birth until they attain salvation. The wheel of life represents an endless cycle of birth, life, and death from which one seeks liberation. In Tantric Buddhism , a wheel of time concept known as the Kalachakra expresses the idea of an endless cycle of existence and knowledge. The concept of "eternal recurrence", the idea that with infinite time and a finite number of events, will recur again and again infinitely, is central to the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche.
According to Heidegger, it is the burden imposed by the question of eternal recurrence—whether or not such a thing could possibly be true—that is so significant in modern thought: "The way Nietzsche here patterns the first communication of the thought of the 'greatest burden' [of eternal recurrence] makes it clear that this 'thought of thoughts' is at the same time 'the most burdensome thought. Nietzsche sums up his thought most succinctly when he addresses the reader with: "Everything has returned.
Sirius, and the spider, and thy thoughts at this moment, and this last thought of thine that all things will return". However, he also expresses his thought at greater length when he says to his reader:. Your whole life, like a sandglass, will always be reversed and will ever run out again, — a long minute of time will elapse until all those conditions out of which you were evolved return in the wheel of the cosmic process.
And then you will find every pain and every pleasure, every friend and every enemy, every hope and every error, every blade of grass and every ray of sunshine once more, and the whole fabric of things which make up your life. This ring in which you are but a grain will glitter afresh forever. And in every one of these cycles of human life there will be one hour where, for the first time one man, and then many, will perceive the mighty thought of the eternal recurrence of all things:— and for mankind this is always the hour of Noon".
This thought is indeed also noted in a posthumous fragment. In Ecce Homo , he wrote that he thought of the eternal return as the "fundamental conception" of Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Several authors have pointed out other occurrences of this hypothesis in contemporary thought.
Henri Lichtenberger and Charles Andler have pinpointed three works contemporary to Nietzsche which carried on the same hypothesis: J. Vogt, Die Kraft. Walter Benjamin juxtaposes Blanqui and Nietzsche's discussion of eternal recurrence in his unfinished, monumental work The Arcades Project. Vogt's work, on the other hand, was read by Nietzsche during this summer of in Sils-Maria.
Walter Kaufmann suggests that Nietzsche may have encountered this idea in the works of Heinrich Heine , who once wrote:. They may indeed disperse into the smallest particles; but these particles, the atoms, have their determinate numbers, and the numbers of the configurations which, all of themselves, are formed out of them is also determinate. Now, however long a time may pass, according to the eternal laws governing the combinations of this eternal play of repetition, all configurations which have previously existed on this earth must yet meet, attract, repulse, kiss, and corrupt each other again Nietzsche calls the idea "horrifying and paralyzing", [ citation needed ] referring to it as a burden of the "heaviest weight" " das schwerste Gewicht "  imaginable.
He professes that the wish for the eternal return of all events would mark the ultimate affirmation of life:.
What, if some day or night a demon were to steal after you into your loneliest loneliness and say to you: 'This life as you now live it and have lived it, you will have to live once more and innumerable times more; and there will be nothing new in it, but every pain and every joy and every thought and sigh and everything unutterably small or great in your life will have to return to you, all in the same succession and sequence' Would you not throw yourself down and gnash your teeth and curse the demon who spoke thus?
Or have you once experienced a tremendous moment when you would have answered him: 'You are a god and never have I heard anything more divine. To comprehend eternal recurrence in his thought, and to not merely come to peace with it but to embrace it, requires amor fati , "love of fate": . My formula for human greatness is amor fati : that one wants to have nothing different, not forward, not backward, not in all eternity.
Not merely to bear the necessary, still less to conceal it—all idealism is mendaciousness before the necessary—but to love it.
In Carl Jung's seminar on Thus Spoke Zarathustra , Jung claims that the dwarf states the idea of the eternal return before Zarathustra finishes his argument of the eternal return when the dwarf says, "'Everything straight lies,' murmured the dwarf disdainfully.
Gilles Deleuze interpreted Nietzsche's Eternal Return as not simply a directive for our ethical behavior, but as a radical understanding of the nature of time. This is not a 'flat circle' or cyclical understanding of time, but a description of the empty form of future time.
It is the ever-generated new time that allows us to continually act in new ways, that allows the creation of novelty. The philosopher and writer Albert Camus explores the notion of "eternal return" in his essay on "The Myth of Sisyphus", in which the repetitive nature of existence comes to represent life's absurdity, something the hero seeks to withstand through manifesting what Paul Tillich called "The Courage to Be".
External Reviews. Metacritic Reviews. Photo Gallery. Trailers and Videos. Crazy Credits. Alternate Versions. Rate This. Living with her husband in a remote house by a lake, she enjoys a daily paradise which is disturbed by the presence of her Director: Rose Harlean. Writer: Rose Harlean. Working with eBay in a performative way, Eternal Return emphasizes how the art market itself is a force that can regenerate.
By tracking the demand for a unique artwork on eBay, data is collected through the bidding process and used to create new artwork.
As a new bid is received for the completed artwork on the current eBay auction, an additional paint brush is spawned on the next live painting on an online canvas www. The more bids that come in, the more brushes are spawned, generating an abstract data painting that uses a visual language of colours, form, shapes, and lines.Dec 09, · U2, Scorpions, Bon Jovi, The Eagles, Aerosmith, Led Zeppelin - Best Rock Songs Playlist - Duration: Slow Rock Recommended for you.