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M3MORY 1. Another Ambition - Into The Deep Paipy - Trance Session Radioshow Ep. SayWowRecords 1. Armin van Buuren - Tomorrowland Friendship Mix. JDias12 Tweet Share Send Copy. It is hard to pinpoint the exact musical influences that most affected the sound and culture of early hip hop because of the multicultural nature of New York City.
Hip hop's early pioneers were influenced by a mix of music from their cultures and the cultures they were exposed to as a result of the diversity of U. This influence was brought on by cultural shifts particularly because of the heightened immigration of Jamaicans to New York City and the American-born Jamaican youth who were coming of age during the s.
In the s, block parties were increasingly popular in New York City, particularly among African-American, Caribbean and Latino youth residing in the Bronx. Block parties incorporated DJs, who played popular genres of music, especially funk and soul music. Due to the positive reception, DJs began isolating the percussive breaks of popular songs. This technique was common in Jamaican dub music ,  and was largely introduced into New York by immigrants from the Caribbean, including DJ Kool Herc , one of the pioneers of hip hop.
Because the percussive breaks in funk, soul and disco records were generally short, Herc and other DJs began using two turntables to extend the breaks. Herc created the blueprint for hip hop music and culture by building upon the Jamaican tradition of impromptu toasting , a spoken type of boastful poetry and speech over music.
He extended the beat of a record by using two record players, isolating the percussion "breaks" by using a mixer to switch between the two records. Herc's experiments with making music with record players became what we now know as breaking or " scratching ". A second key musical element in hip hop music is emceeing also called MCing or rapping. Emceeing is the rhythmic spoken delivery of rhymes and wordplay, delivered at first without accompaniment and later done over a beat.
This spoken style was influenced by the African American style of "capping", a performance where men tried to outdo each other in originality of their language and tried to gain the favor of the listeners. MCing and rapping performers moved back and forth between the predominance of "toasting" songs packed with a mix of boasting, 'slackness' and sexual innuendo and a more topical, political, socially conscious style.
The MC would introduce the DJ and try to pump up the audience. The MC spoke between the DJ's songs, urging everyone to get up and dance. MCs would also tell jokes and use their energetic language and enthusiasm to rev up the crowd. Eventually, this introducing role developed into longer sessions of spoken, rhythmic wordplay, and rhyming, which became rapping. By hip hop music had become a mainstream genre. It spread across the world in the s with controversial "gangsta" rap.
This form of music playback, using hard funk and rock, formed the basis of hip hop music. Campbell's announcements and exhortations to dancers would lead to the syncopated, rhymed spoken accompaniment now known as rapping. He dubbed his dancers "break-boys" and "break-girls", or simply b-boys and b-girls. According to Herc, "breaking" was also street slang for "getting excited" and "acting energetically". Street gangs were prevalent in the poverty of the South Bronx, and much of the graffiti, rapping, and b-boying at these parties were all artistic variations on the competition and one-upmanship of street gangs.
Sensing that gang members' often violent urges could be turned into creative ones, Afrika Bambaataa founded the Zulu Nation , a loose confederation of street-dance crews, graffiti artists, and rap musicians. By the late s, the culture had gained media attention, with Billboard magazine printing an article titled "B Beats Bombarding Bronx", commenting on the local phenomenon and mentioning influential figures such as Kool Herc.
As a result, the hip hop genre, barely known outside of the Bronx at the time, grew at an astounding rate from onward. DJ Kool Herc 's house parties gained popularity and later moved to outdoor venues in order to accommodate more people.
Hosted in parks, these outdoor parties became a means of expression and an outlet for teenagers, where "instead of getting into trouble on the streets, teens now had a place to expend their pent-up energy. MC Kid Lucky mentions that "people used to break-dance against each other instead of fighting".
The lyrical content of many early rap groups focused on social issues, most notably in the seminal track "The Message" by Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five , which discussed the realities of life in the housing projects.
Billboard Hot —the song itself is usually considered new wave and fuses heavy pop music elements, but there is an extended rap by Harry near the end. Boxer Muhammad Ali , as an influential African-American celebrity , was widely covered in the media. Ali influenced several elements of hip hop music. Both in the boxing ring and in media interviews, Ali became known in the s for being "rhyming trickster" in the s.
Ali used a " funky delivery" for his comments, which included "boasts, comical trash talk , [and] the endless quotabl[e]" lines. Drum-machines and samplers were combined in machines that came to be known as MPC 's or ' Music Production Centers ', early examples of which would include the Linn The first sampler that was broadly adopted to create this new kind of music was the Mellotron used in combination with the TR drum machine.
As well, the art of Jamaican toasting , a style of talking or chanting into a microphone, often in a boastful style, while beats play over a sound system , was an important influence on the development of hip hop music. Toasting is another influence found in Jamaican dub music. Rapping , also referred to as MCing or emceeing, is a vocal style in which the artist speaks lyrically and rhythmically, in rhyme and verse, generally to an instrumental or synthesized beat.
Rappers may write, memorize, or improvise their lyrics and perform their works a cappella or to a beat. However, the majority of the genre has been accompanied by rap vocals, such as the Sci-fi influenced electro hip hop group Warp 9. The roots of rapping are found in African-American music and ultimately African music , particularly that of the griots  of West African culture.
Early popular radio disc jockeys of the Black-appeal radio period broke into broadcast announcing by using these techniques under the jive talk of the post WWII swing era in the late s and the s.
Rufus Thomas. It was there he perfected the dozens, signifyin' and the personality jock jive patter that would become his schtick when he became the first black radio announcer on the air south of the Mason—Dixon line. They were also finding other D. J's emulated the southern 'mushmouth' and jive talk, letting their audience think they too were African-American, playing the blues and Be-Bop.
J's at the station. Hep Cat's rhymes were published in a dictionary of jive talk, The Jives of Dr. Hepcat , in Jockey jack is the infamous Jack the Rapper of Family Affair fame, after his radio convention that was a must attend for every rap artist in the s and s  These jive talking rappers of the s black appeal radio format were the source and inspiration of Soul singer James Brown , and musical 'comedy' acts such as Rudy Ray Moore , Pigmeat Markham and Blowfly that are often considered "godfathers" of hip hop music.
AM radio at many stations were limited by the 'broadcast Day' as special licenses were required to transmit at night. Those that had such licenses were heard far out to sea and in the Caribbean, where Jocko Henderson and Jockey Jack were American DJs who were listened to at night from broadcast transmitters located in Miami, Florida. In Jamaica, DJs would set up large roadside sound systems in towns and villages, playing music for informal gatherings, mostly folks who wandered down from country hills looking for excitement at the end of the week.
It was by this method that Jive talk, rapping and rhyming was transposed to the island and locally the style was transformed by 'Jamaican lyricism', or the local patois. Recordings of talk-over, which is a different style from the dancehall's DJ style, were also made by Jamaican artists such as Prince Buster and Lee "Scratch" Perry Judge Dread as early as , somehow rooted in the 'talking blues' tradition. The Jamaican DJ dance music was deeply rooted in the sound system tradition that made music available to poor people in a very poor country where live music was only played in clubs and hotels patronized by the middle and upper classes.
Although other influences, most notably musical sequencer Grandmaster Flowers of Brooklyn and Grandwizard Theodore of the Bronx contributed to the birth of hip hop in New York, and although it was downplayed in most US books about hip hop, the main root of this sound system culture was Jamaican.
DJ Kool Herc and Coke La Rock provided an influence on the vocal style of rapping by delivering simple poetry verses over funk music breaks, after party-goers showed little interest in their previous attempts to integrate reggae-infused toasting into musical sets. Later, the MCs grew more varied in their vocal and rhythmic delivery, incorporating brief rhymes, often with a sexual or scatological theme, in an effort to differentiate themselves and to entertain the audience.
These early raps incorporated the dozens, a product of African-American culture. Often these were collaborations between former gangs , such as Afrikaa Bambaataa 's Universal Zulu Nation —now an international organization. Melle Mel , a rapper with The Furious Five is often credited with being the first rap lyricist to call himself an "MC".
The style was documented for release to a worldwide audience for the first time in documentaries and movies such as Style Wars , Wild Style , and Beat Street. The term "B-boy" was coined by DJ Kool Herc to describe the people who would wait for the break section of the song, getting in front of the audience to dance in a distinctive, frenetic style.
Although there were many early MCs that recorded solo projects of note, such as DJ Hollywood , Kurtis Blow and Spoonie Gee , the frequency of solo artists did not increase until later with the rise of soloists with stage presence and drama, such as LL Cool J.
Most early hip hop was dominated by groups where collaboration between the members was integral to the show. Hip hop music was both influenced by disco music , as disco also emphasized the key role of the DJ in creating tracks and mixes for dancers. As well, hip hop from the late s used disco tracks as beats. At the same time, hip hop music was also a backlash against certain subgenres of late s disco.
While the early disco was African-American and Italian-American -created underground music developed by DJs and producers for the dance club subculture, by the late s, disco airwaves were dominated by mainstream, expensively recorded music industry -produced disco songs. According to Kurtis Blow , the early days of hip hop were characterized by divisions between fans and detractors of disco music. Hip hop had largely emerged as "a direct response to the watered down, Europeanised, disco music that permeated the airwaves".
This genre was called "disco rap". Ironically, the rise of hip hop music also played a role in the eventual decline in disco's popularity. The disco sound had a strong influence on early hip hop music. The Sugarhill Gang used Chic 's " Good Times " as the foundation for their hit " Rapper's Delight ", generally considered to be the song that first popularized rap music in the United States and around the world.
Their styles differed from other hip hop musicians who focused on rapid-fire rhymes and more complex rhythmic schemes. In Washington, D. The DJ-based genre of electronic music behaved similarly, eventually evolving into underground styles known as house music in Chicago and techno in Detroit.
The earliest hip hop music was performed live, at house parties and block party events, and it was not recorded. Prior to , recorded hip hop music consisted mainly of PA system soundboard recordings of live party shows and early hip hop mixtapes by DJs. Puerto Rican DJ Disco Wiz is credited as the first hip hop DJ to create a "mixed plate," or mixed dub recording, when, in , he combined sound bites, special effects and paused beats to technically produce a sound recording.
By the early s, all the major elements and techniques of the hip hop genre were in place, and by , the electronic electro sound had become the trend on the street and in dance clubs. New York City radio station WKTU featured Warp 9 's " Nunk ," in a commercial to promote the station's signature sound of emerging hip hop  Though not yet mainstream, hip hop had begun to permeate the music scene outside of New York City; it could be found in cities as diverse as Los Angeles , Atlanta , Chicago , Washington, D.
Louis , New Orleans , Houston , and Toronto. Indeed, " Funk You Up " , the first hip hop record released by a female group, and the second single released by Sugar Hill Records , was performed by The Sequence , a group from Columbia, South Carolina which featured Angie Stone.
Hip hop music became popular in Philadelphia in the late s. The first released record was titled "Rhythm Talk", by Jocko Henderson. The s marked the diversification of hip hop as the genre developed more complex styles. Early examples of the diversification process can be heard in tracks such as Grandmaster Flash's " The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel " , a single consisting entirely of sampled tracks  as well as Afrika Bambaataa 's " Planet Rock " , and Warp 9 's " Nunk ,"  which signified the fusion of hip hop music with electro.
In the s, hip hop music typically used samples from funk and later, from disco. The mids marked a paradigm shift in the development of hip hop, with the introduction of samples from rock music , as demonstrated in the albums King of Rock and Licensed to Ill. Hip hop prior to this shift is characterized as old-school hip hop. It was one of the earliest programmable drum machines, with which users could create their own rhythms rather than having to use preset patterns. Though it was a commercial failure, over the course of the decade the attracted a cult following among underground musicians for its affordability on the used market,  ease of use,  and idiosyncratic sounds, particularly its deep, "booming" bass drum.
Over time sampling technology became more advanced. However, earlier producers such as Marley Marl used drum machines to construct their beats from small excerpts of other beats in synchronisation , in his case, triggering three Korg sampling-delay units through a Roland Later, samplers such as the E-mu SP allowed not only more memory but more flexibility for creative production.
This allowed the filtration and layering different hits, and with a possibility of re-sequencing them into a single piece. With the emergence of a new generation of samplers such as the AKAI S in the late s, producers did not have to create complex, time-consuming tape loops.
Public Enemy 's first album was created with the help of large tape loops. The process of looping a break into a breakbeat now became more commonly done with a sampler, now doing the job which so far had been done manually by the DJs using turntables.
In , DJ Mark James, under the moniker "45 King", released "The Number", a breakbeat track created by synchronizing samplers and vinyl records. The lyrical content and other instrumental accompaniment of hip hop developed as well.
As well, the lyrics were performed over more complex, multi-layered instrumental accompaniment. Artists such as Melle Mel , Rakim , Chuck D , KRS-One and Warp 9 revolutionized hip hop by transforming it into a more mature art form, with sophisticated arrangements, often featuring "gorgeous textures and multiple layers"  The influential single " The Message " by Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five is widely considered to be the pioneering force for conscious rap.
Independent record labels like Tommy Boy , Prism Records and Profile Records became successful in the early s, releasing records at a furious pace in response to the demand generated by local radio stations and club DJs.
Early s electro music and rap were catalysts that sparked the hip hop movement, led by artists such as Cybotron , Hashim , Afrika Bambaataa , Planet Patrol , Newcleus and Warp 9. Kurtis Blow 's appearance in a Sprite soda pop commercial  marked the first hip hop musician to do a commercial for a major product. The songs " Rapture " by Blondie and " Christmas Wrapping " by the new wave band The Waitresses were among the first pop songs to utilize rap.
In , Afrika Bambaataa introduced hip hop to an international audience with " Planet Rock. Prior to the s, hip hop music was largely confined within the context of the United States. However, during the s, it began its spread and became a part of the music scene in dozens of countries. In the early part of the decade, B-boying became the first aspect of hip hop culture to reach Japan, Australia and South Africa. In South Africa, the breakdance crew Black Noise established the practice before beginning to rap later in the decade.
Sidney is considered the father of French hip hop. Radio Nova helped launch other French hip hop stars including Dee Nasty , whose album Paname City Rappin' along with compilations Rapattitude 1 and 2 contributed to a general awareness of hip hop in France.
Hip hop has always kept a very close relationship with the Latino community in New York. After the departure of "Ace" to begin his solo career, the group adopted the name of Cypress Hill named after a street running through a neighborhood nearby in South Los Angeles. Japanese hip hop is said to have begun when Hiroshi Fujiwara returned to Japan and started playing hip hop records in the early s. Hip hop became one of the most commercially viable mainstream music genres in Japan, and the line between it and pop music is frequently blurred.
The new school of hip hop was the second wave of hip hop music, originating in —84 with the early records of Run-D. As with the hip hop preceding it which subsequently became known as old school hip hop , the new school came predominantly from New York City. In image as in song its artists projected a tough, cool, street b-boy attitude. These elements contrasted sharply with much of the previous funk- and disco-influenced hip hop groups, whose music was often characterized by novelty hits, live bands, synthesizers, and "party rhymes" not all artists prior to —84 had these styles.
New school artists made shorter songs that could more easily gain radio play, and they produced more cohesive LP albums than their old school counterparts. By , their releases began to establish the hip-hop album as a fixture of mainstream music. Hip hop music became commercially successful, as exemplified by the Beastie Boys ' album Licensed to Ill , which was the first rap album to hit No. Hip hop's "golden age" or "golden era" is a name given to a period in mainstream hip hop, produced between the mids and the mids,    which is characterized by its diversity, quality, innovation and influence.
The music was experimental and the sampling drew on eclectic sources. The golden age is noted for its innovation — a time "when it seemed that every new single reinvented the genre"  according to Rolling Stone. Referring to "hip-hop in its golden age",  Spin ' s editor-in-chief Sia Michel says, "there were so many important, groundbreaking albums coming out right about that time",  and MTV 's Sway Calloway adds: "The thing that made that era so great is that nothing was contrived.
Everything was still being discovered and everything was still innovative and new". Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that reflects the violent lifestyles of inner-city American black youths. The genre was pioneered in the mids by rappers such as Schoolly D and Ice-T , and was popularized in the later part of the s by groups like N. Schoolly D released " P.
What Does It Mean? After the national attention and controversy that Ice-T and N. A created in the late s and early s, as well as the mainstreaming of G-funk in the mids, gangsta rap became the most commercially lucrative subgenre of hip hop. A is the group most frequently associated with the founding of gangsta rap. Their lyrics were more violent, openly confrontational, and shocking than those of established rap acts, featuring incessant profanity and, controversially, use of the word " nigga ".
These lyrics were placed over rough, rock guitar-driven beats, contributing to the music's hard-edged feel. The first blockbuster gangsta rap album was N. A's Straight Outta Compton , released in Straight Outta Compton would establish West Coast hip hop as a vital genre, and establish Los Angeles as a legitimate rival to hip hop's long-time capital, New York City.
Straight Outta Compton sparked the first major controversy regarding hip hop lyrics when their song " Fuck tha Police " earned a letter from FBI Assistant Director, Milt Ahlerich, strongly expressing law enforcement 's resentment of the song. Amazon Payment Products. English Choose a language for shopping. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers.
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