Fewer than fifty titles were issued, and the series was dropped in , due to poor sales. The playing time of a phonograph record depends on the available groove length divided by the turntable speed. Total groove length in turn depends on how closely the grooves are spaced, in addition to the record diameter. At the beginning of the 20th century, the early discs played for two minutes, the same as cylinder records.
In January , Milt Gabler started recording for Commodore Records , and to allow for longer continuous performances, he recorded some inch discs.
Eddie Condon explained: "Gabler realized that a jam session needs room for development. Vaudeville stars Gallagher and Shean recorded "Mr. Gallagher and Mr. Shean", written by themselves or, allegedly, by Bryan Foy, as two sides of a inch 78 in for Victor. The limited duration of recordings persisted from their advent until the introduction of the LP record in In the 78 era, classical-music and spoken-word items generally were released on the longer inch 78s, about 4—5 minutes per side.
For example, on June 10, , four months after the February 12 premier of Rhapsody in Blue , George Gershwin recorded an abridged version of the seventeen-minute work with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra. Generally the sleeves had a circular cut-out exposing the record label to view.
Records could be laid on a shelf horizontally or stood on an edge, but because of their fragility, breakage was common. German record company Odeon pioneered the album in when it released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package. The practice of issuing albums was not adopted by other record companies for many years. By about , [note 1] bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records the term "record album" was printed on some covers.
These albums came in both inch and inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them.
Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight tunes per album. When the inch vinyl LP era began in , each disc could hold a similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, so they were still referred to as an "album", as they are today. This series came in heavy manilla envelopes and began with a jazz album AP-1 and was soon followed by other AP numbers up through about AP These vinyl Rhino 78's were softer and would be destroyed by old juke boxes and old record players, but play very well on newer capable turntables with modern lightweight tone arms and jewel needles.
In , RCA Victor launched the first commercially available vinyl long-playing record, marketed as program-transcription discs. RCA Victor's early introduction of a long-play disc was a commercial failure for several reasons including the lack of affordable, reliable consumer playback equipment and consumer wariness during the Great Depression.
There were also a couple of longer-playing records issued on ARC for release on their Banner, Perfect, and Oriole labels and on the Crown label. All of these were phased out in mid Vinyl's lower surface noise level than shellac was not forgotten, nor was its durability. In the late s, radio commercials and pre-recorded radio programs being sent to disc jockeys started being pressed in vinyl, so they would not break in the mail.
In the mids, special DJ copies of records started being made of vinyl also, for the same reason. Beginning in , Dr. Peter Goldmark and his staff at Columbia Records and at CBS Laboratories undertook efforts to address problems of recording and playing back narrow grooves and developing an inexpensive, reliable consumer playback system.
It took about eight years of study, except when it was suspended because of World War II. Another size and format was that of radio transcription discs beginning in the s. No home record player could accommodate such large records, and they were used mainly by radio stations. They were on average 15 minutes per side and contained several songs or radio program material. These records became less common in the United States when tape recorders began being used for radio transcriptions around In the UK, analog discs continued to be the preferred medium for the licence of BBC transcriptions to overseas broadcasters until the use of CDs became a practical alternative.
On a few early phonograph systems and radio transcription discs, as well as some entire albums, the direction of the groove is reversed, beginning near the center of the disc and leading to the outside. The earliest rotation speeds varied considerably, but from most records were recorded at 74—82 revolutions per minute rpm.
At least one attempt to lengthen playing time was made in the early s. World Records produced records that played at a constant linear velocity , controlled by Noel Pemberton Billing 's patented add-on speed governor. This behavior is similar to the modern compact disc and the CLV version of its predecessor, the analog encoded Philips LaserDisc , but is reversed from inside to outside.
In the s, Earlier they were just called records , or when there was a need to distinguish them from cylinders , disc records. The older 78 rpm format continued to be mass-produced alongside the newer formats using new materials in decreasing numbers until the summer of in the U.
Some of Elvis Presley 's early singles on Sun Records may have sold more copies on 78 than on In the mids all record companies agreed to a common frequency response standard, called RIAA equalization.
Prior to the establishment of the standard each company used its own preferred equalization, requiring discriminating listeners to use pre-amplifiers with selectable equalization curves. Prestige Records released jazz records in this format in the late s; for example, two of their Miles Davis albums were paired together in this format.
Each record held 40 minutes of music per side, recorded at grooves per inch. For a two-year period from to , record companies and consumers faced uncertainty over which of these formats would ultimately prevail in what was known as the "War of the Speeds".
See also format war. By , million 45s had been sold. The large center hole on 45s allows for easier handling by jukebox mechanisms. EPs were generally discontinued by the late s in the U.
In the late s and early s, rpm-only players that lacked speakers and plugged into a jack on the back of a radio were widely available. Eventually, they were replaced by the three-speed record player. From the mids through the s, in the U.
The adapter could be a small solid circle that fit onto the bottom of the spindle meaning only one 45 could be played at a time or a larger adaptor that fit over the entire spindle, permitting a stack of 45s to be played. RCA Victor 45s were also adapted to the smaller spindle of an LP player with a plastic snap-in insert known as a " spider ". In countries outside the U. During the vinyl era, various developments were introduced. Stereo finally lost its previous experimental status, and eventually became standard internationally.
Quadraphonic sound effectively had to wait for digital formats before finding a permanent position in the market place. The term "high fidelity" was coined in the s by some manufacturers of radio receivers and phonographs to differentiate their better-sounding products claimed as providing "perfect" sound reproduction.
After a variety of improvements in recording and playback technologies, especially stereo recordings, which became widely available in , gave a boost to the "hi-fi" classification of products, leading to sales of individual components for the home such as amplifiers, loudspeakers, phonographs, and tape players. Stereophonic sound recording, which attempts to provide a more natural listening experience by reproducing the spatial locations of sound sources in the horizontal plane, was the natural extension to monophonic recording, and attracted various alternative engineering attempts.
EMI cut the first stereo test discs using the system in see Bell Labs Stereo Experiments of although the system was not exploited commercially until much later. In this system, each of two stereo channels is carried independently by a separate groove wall, each wall face moving at 45 degrees to the plane of the record surface hence the system's name in correspondence with the signal level of that channel.
By convention, the inner wall carries the left-hand channel and the outer wall carries the right-hand channel. While the stylus only moves horizontally when reproducing a monophonic disk recording, on stereo records the stylus moves vertically as well as horizontally. During playback, the movement of a single stylus tracking the groove is sensed independently, e.
The combined stylus motion can be represented in terms of the vector sum and difference of the two stereo channels. In the first commercial stereo two-channel records were issued first by Audio Fidelity followed by a translucent blue vinyl on Bel Canto Records , the first of which was a multi-colored-vinyl sampler featuring A Stereo Tour of Los Angeles narrated by Jack Wagner on one side, and a collection of tracks from various Bel Canto albums on the back. However, it was not until the mid-to-late s that the sales of stereophonic LPs overtook those of their monophonic equivalents, and became the dominant record type.
The development of quadraphonic records was announced in These recorded four separate sound signals. This was achieved on the two stereo channels by electronic matrixing, where the additional channels were combined into the main signal. When the records were played, phase-detection circuits in the amplifiers were able to decode the signals into four separate channels.
They proved commercially unsuccessful, but were an important precursor to later surround sound systems, as seen in SACD and home cinema today. This system encoded the front-rear difference information on an ultrasonic carrier.
CD-4 was less successful than matrix formats. A further problem was that no cutting heads were available that could handle the high frequency information. This was remedied by cutting at half the speed. Later, the special half-speed cutting heads and equalization techniques were employed to get wider frequency response in stereo with reduced distortion and greater headroom. Under the direction of recording engineer C. Robert Fine, Mercury Records initiated a minimalist single microphone monaural recording technique in The first record, a Chicago Symphony Orchestra performance of Pictures at an Exhibition, conducted by Rafael Kubelik , was described as "being in the living presence of the orchestra" by The New York Times music critic.
The series of records was then named Mercury Living Presence. In , Mercury began three-channel stereo recordings, still based on the principle of the single microphone. The center single microphone was of paramount importance, with the two side mics adding depth and space. Record masters were cut directly from a three-track to two-track mixdown console, with all editing of the master tapes done on the original three-tracks.
The Mercury Living Presence recordings were remastered to CD in the s by the original producer, Wilma Cozart Fine, using the same method of three-to-two mix directly to the master recorder. Through the s, s, and s, various methods to improve the dynamic range of mass-produced records involved highly advanced disc cutting equipment. RCA Victor introduced another system to reduce dynamic range and achieve a groove with less surface noise under the commercial name of Dynagroove.
Two main elements were combined: another disk material with less surface noise in the groove and dynamic compression for masking background noise. Sometimes this was called "diaphragming" the source material and not favoured by some music lovers for its unnatural side effects. Both elements were reflected in the brandname of Dynagroove, described elsewhere in more detail.
It also used the earlier advanced method of forward-looking control on groove spacing with respect to volume of sound and position on the disk. Lower recorded volume used closer spacing; higher recorded volume used wider spacing, especially with lower frequencies. Also, the higher track density at lower volumes enabled disk recordings to end farther away from the disk center than usual, helping to reduce endtrack distortion even further.
This process is cumbersome. As you can see from the image, wood glue was hard to apply in an even layer on the vinyl surface. We used about one-fifth of a bottle just for a single side of a record. It also takes longer than any other method tested. For wood glue to be effective, you need to let it dry, then peel it off, then rinse, then dry again.
Drying out the wood glue also takes up a good amount of space. In what was probably the biggest surprise of the entire experiment — the results were fantastic. We deliberately used one of the dirtiest records for the solution and it removed the vast majority of grime in one application.
Wood Glue — 2. There are numerous companies that offer vinyl record cleaning solutions that are both easy to use and relatively affordable. We put a few of the most common ones to the test to see if their claims of providing superior cleaning ring true.
They collaborate with record shops, labels, and others in the industry to create limited-edition bottles, which makes them stand out. They are also active in the London record fair scene, hosting around 12 events each year. The solution was easy to apply. The microfiber white cloth included with the bottle allowed us to clean a record without needing any additional materials. Removed a lot of grime and dirt — even stuff that our homemade concoction did not. The white cloth shows the grime you remove right away, which visually reinforces the work.
The solution leaves a nice shine after. Near Mint — 4. GrooveWasher was inspired by a former professor of microbiology named Dr. Bruce Meier. GrooveWasher is an attempt to honor his Discwasher invention. They strive to provide a consumer record cleaning tool and method that cleans the microgroove so the honest sound can be heard without doing harm to the record or the stylus.
Functionally, the GrooveWasher kit is complete. With other solutions, you might need to purchase distilled water or a microfiber cloth to start cleaning.
The display kit is aesthetically pleasing and is a nice touch. Definitely helpful for keeping everything in one place. It distributed pressure well and kept our grimy hands far away from the clean surface. GrooveWasher wiped away stains that looked tough nearly instantly. It would also last pretty long given how little is needed to clean a record. In short, Discogs knew what they were doing when they decided to partner with GrooveWasher on a branded vinyl record cleaning solution package.
It is well organized and looks great next to any setup. You can find an array of their products, including the kit with the stand tested for this article, at Turntable Lab.
I initially wanted to test The Library of Congress mixture of deionized water and. I quickly learned that Tergitol S-7 is not available from any local shops and must be ordered online…in amounts that are both expensive and too large for this experiment.
Since this method requires diluting the Tergitol, the amounts I came across were enough to last most collectors a lifetime. Then a coworker mentioned his solution of choice, TergiKleen. Derived from Tergitol, the concentrate can be diluted with distilled water to create a near-match to the LOC solution. With the warnings on the box, we decided to use precaution in handling this solution.
They recommend using a cake pan to soak the record. As a manual solution, it is probably not your best option. You need additional materials bucket or cake pan, distilled water, potentially gloves, etc. However, I can see this being the best solution we tested for vinyl record cleaning machines, such as Spin-Cleen. TergiKleen is undeniably powerful.
We cleaned one of the dirtiest records with little elbow grease and the record was left in pristine condition. It should last most collectors the full two-year shelf life, just a few drops should make enough solution for hundreds of records. For collectors who have hundreds, if not thousands, of dirty records to clean and absolute purists, TergiKleen is a great vinyl record cleaning solution.
Better for vinyl record cleaning machines than hand washes. Discogs included affiliate links to earn fees from the products recommended in this article. Hi folks, i made this to clean my records using the tap rince and then use distilled soep water. Works very good. I use the Knox record cleaning system which is similar to the Spin Clean along with the Tergikleen.
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International Shipping. Get it as soon as Wed, Jul Only 15 left in stock - order soon. Personal computers are far higher than 40 percent and tablet growth is booming with over ,, Apple iPads sold to date. Android tablet sales are booming in the same way. The future of audiophilia is going to be based on the mainstream consumer availability of music in high-definition, bit, 96 kHz resolution, with options for surround sound, HD video supplemental materials and beyond.
In the short term, the low-cost copy-protection and 50 GB capability of Blu-ray represents the easiest way for major labels to sell consumers their music over again. Hollywood movie studios offer blockbuster films in p video with master quality 7. They should be scared that you won't ever buy a record from them again, because selling another 1,, copies of Kind of Blue or Back in Black doesn't cost squat to remaster and release, as those records have been paid for generations ago.
If given the choice between hashed-out MP3s and vinyl, I could see why some might chose vinyl. If the example of the Apple iPod taught us anything, it's that mainstream consumers will buy convenience over performance, which is audiophilia's biggest worry going forward. The next generation of audiophiles won't find the second order distortion of vinyl or tubes as important as having their entire music collection loaded into their Samsung Galaxy tablets and speaking flawlessly to their audio systems via Bluetooth or some other wireless codex.
If vinyl grows 39 percent for the next ten years, it still won't be meaningful compared to an also-dead format, the compact disc. What we need is an audiophile format that is as analogous to the master as possible, whether the format is analog or digital. Two-inch analog master tapes which none of us have - even those with quarter-inch reel-to-reel decks can get you really close to the master tape, but the format is unwieldy for a multitude of reasons.
Mission 7 Vadim Zhukov Remix. Fate Original Mix. Dmitry Mikheev. Robert Nickson vs Haak. Disfunctional Original Mix. Oleg Maximov. Dmitry Mikheev replied 4 replies. Airflow Original Mix. Gate To Hell. Krieg Gegen Die Maschinen. Mister Credo. DJ Jo. Balearica Original Mix.And even then, they are rarely truly pristine in an audiophile sense for many reasons (vinyl quality, how the disc was cared for, usage, etc.) This is especially significant for those of you audiophiles who have little tolerance for a pop or tick or a visual-but-not-audible scuff mark on the disc. Those original pressings can cost some serious.