At the Treaty negotiations, Hughes was the most prominent opponent of the inclusion of Japan's Racial Equality Proposal , which as a result of lobbying by him and others was not included in the final Treaty. His position on this issue reflected the dominant racist attitudes of the White Australia policy. He told David Lloyd George that he would leave the conference if the clause was adopted. Hughes had entered politics as a trade unionist, and like most of the Australian working class was very strongly opposed to Asian immigration to Australia excluding Asian immigration was a popular cause with unions in Canada, the U.
S, Australia, and New Zealand in the early 20th century. Hughes believed that accepting the Racial Equality clause would mean the end of the White Australia immigration policy that had been adopted in , writing: "No Gov't could live for a day in Australia if it tampered with a White Australia". The White Australia is yours. You may do with it what you please, but at any rate, the soldiers have achieved the victory and my colleagues and I have brought that great principle back to you from the conference, as safe as it was on the day when it was first adopted.
Japan was notably offended by Hughes's position on the issue. Within months of the declaration of the European War in , Japan, Australia and New Zealand had seized all German territorial possessions in the Pacific. Though Japan had occupied German possessions with the blessing of the British, Hughes felt alarm at this turn of events.
With reference to Hughes's actions at the Peace Conference, the historian Ernest Scott said that although Hughes failed to secure sovereignty over the conquered German islands or relief for Australia's war debts, "both he and his countrymen found satisfaction with his achievements. By characteristic methods he had gained single-handed at least the points that were vital to his nation's existence".
Seth Tillman described him as "a noisesome demagogue", the " bete noir [ sic ] of Anglo-American relations". Hughes demanded that Australia have independent representation within the newly-formed League of Nations. Despite the rejection of his conscription policy, Hughes retained popularity with Australian voters, and in the Australian federal election of December his government was comfortably re-elected.
After Hughes's political position declined. Many of the more conservative elements of his own party never trusted him because they thought he was still a socialist at heart, citing his interest in retaining government ownership of the Commonwealth Shipping Line and the Australian Wireless Company. However, they continued to support him for some time after the war, if only to keep Labor out of power.
A new party, the Country Party now the National Party , was formed, representing farmers who were discontented with the Nationalists' rural policies, in particular Hughes's acceptance of a much higher level of tariff protection for Australian industries that had expanded during the war and his support for price controls on rural produce.
At the federal election , Hughes gave up Bendigo and transferred to the upper-class seat of North Sydney , thus giving up one of the last symbolic links to his working-class roots. The Nationalists lost their outright majority at the election.
The Country Party, despite its opposition to Hughes's farm policy, was the Nationalists' only realistic coalition partner. However, party leader Earle Page let it be known that he and his party would not serve under Hughes.
Under pressure from his party's right wing, Hughes resigned in February and was succeeded by his Treasurer, Stanley Bruce. Hughes played little part in parliament for the remainder of In the articles he defended his legacy as prime minister and stated he would support the new government as long as it followed his principles. As a result he cancelled the rest of his engagements and drove back across the country in a new Flint automobile, which he brought back to Australia.
Hughes was furious at being ousted by his own party and nursed his grievance on the back-benches until , when he led a group of back-bench rebels who crossed the floor of the Parliament to bring down the Bruce government. Hughes was expelled from the Nationalist Party, and formed his own party, the Australian Party. After the Nationalists were heavily defeated in the ensuing election , Hughes initially supported the Labor government of James Scullin.
He had a falling-out with Scullin over financial matters, however. In he buried the hatchet with his former non-Labor colleagues and joined the Nationalists and several right-wing Labor dissidents under Joseph Lyons in forming the United Australia Party UAP , under Lyons' leadership. He voted with the rest of the UAP to bring the Scullin government down.
The UAP won a sweeping victory at the election. Later Lyons appointed him Minister for External Affairs, but Hughes was forced to resign in after his book Australia and the War Today exposed a lack of preparation in Australia for what Hughes correctly supposed to be a coming war. Soon after, the Lyons government tripled the defence budget. He believed that every nation must look to its own defences and that, as Britain was preoccupied in European affairs, Australia would have to defend itself.
After the Japanese invasion of Manchuria , Hughes believed that the British should remain neutral, and adopted the same attitude towards Italy's invasion of Abyssinia in Hughes believed that the British Empire was in danger because of its weakness in the Mediterranean. In Germany requested the return of her Pacific colonies but Hughes declared that Australia should hold onto New Guinea, and in April he said that if Germany wanted colonies she would have to fight for them.
Defence issues became increasingly dominant in public affairs with the rise of Fascism in Europe and militant Japan in Asia. Labor opposition leader John Curtin declined to join and Menzies lost his majority at the Election.
With the Allies suffering a series of defeats and the threat of war growing in the Pacific, the Menzies Government relied on two independents, Arthur Coles and Alex Wilson for its parliamentary majority. Unable to convince Curtin to join in a War Cabinet and facing growing pressure within his own party, Menzies resigned as Prime Minister on 29 August A month later, Coles and Wilson joined with the Labor opposition to defeat the budget and bring down the government.
Hughes was narrowly elected leader on 9 October   but widely regarded as a stop-gap given his age. On 7 December, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. Soon afterwards, Hughes criticised the British government for their weakness in the Far East and declared that they were living on "fast-fading gleams of British triumphs in other wars".
It would be well if those who criticise Britain would turn the searchlights on Australia". He believed that Britain and the Dominions should instead work together for a common foreign policy.
Hughes led the UAP into the election largely by refusing to hold any party meetings and by agreeing to let Fadden lead the Opposition as a whole. The Coalition was severely defeated, winning only 19 seats. Hughes himself was nearly defeated in North Sydney on a swing of over 14 percent, seeing his majority dwindle from a comfortably safe 67 percent to a marginal 53 percent. After the election, Hughes—who had widely been reckoned as a stopgap leader—yielded the leadership of the UAP back to Menzies.
By that point the War Council had been abolished. A major redistribution and expansion of the House of Representatives occurred prior to the election , with much of the northern portion of North Sydney transferred to the new Bradfield.
Hughes faced a preselection challenge for the first time since , but defeated Harry Turner for Liberal Party endorsement and won a comfortable victory. Hughes' last speech in parliament was an attack on the Menzies Government's decision to sell its share in Commonwealth Oil Refineries , one of the state-owned enterprises his government had established over 30 years earlier. According to H. The backing band are listed as the Oklahomans; consisting of Porky Freedman lead guitar , Red Murrell rhythm guitar , Cliffie Stone bass , and Billy Hughes fiddle , essentially a Hollywood Hillbilly dream band for the s, of course no Merle Travis, but most of these guys were on his records from the same period.
Billy would have been 25 years old at this time. Does anyone know if either of these is the same Billy Hughes? I don't see his name mentioned in the link you provide? Virtually no chance the Lee Wiley connection is to Billy.
And I don't know that he was active musically in ? Regarding Rocky Ship--I haven't played the record in over a decade, but as I recall I suspected it was Billy due to the fake-sounding name and a very similar voice. My memory of my conversations with Billy has faded, but I am reasonably sure I asked him and I think he said that Ship was NOT a pseudonym, but in fact another guy--possibly a Hughes band member?
Sounds like the correct time-frame. Thanks again. All times are Pacific US. The preferred versions suggested by an audio engineer at George Blood, L. Compilations - Other albums which feature this performance of the song. Covers - Performances of a song with the same name by different artists. Uploaded by jakej on April 29, Actor Kung Fu.
At age eight, he was discovered by director Daniel Mann and cast as "Stavros", the Actor Agent for H. He was an actor, known for Agent for H. He was married to Sally Boyd and Dinah Washington. He died on July 9, in Actor The King and I. Actor Anna and the King of Siam. Richard Lyon was born on October 8, in London, England. He was married to Angela Ferguson. He died on October 16, in Dafen, Carmarthenshire, Wales.
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His descent into a life of alcoholism, drugs, and crime remains one of the most tragic of Hollywood stories. Actor Matinee Theater. Actor A Tree Grows in Brooklyn. Actor Goodbye, Mr. He is an actor, known for Goodbye, Mr. Writer Rollercoaster. Spry, curly-haired, dark-complexioned child actor Tommy Cook's most famous roles happened during his nascent career in serial adventures.
He came on the feature film scene auspiciously in the role of young Indian boy Little Beaver alongside western good guy 'Don 'Red' Barry' in the Adventures of Actor The 5, Fingers of Dr. Tommy was a successful child actor in when he was chosen out of a field of to play Jeff Miller in the TV series Lassie He was with the show for four years, after which Lassie acquired a whole new family. Rettig, the only child of Elias Rettig, a Lockheed aircraft-parts inspector, Categories : births deaths People from Sallisaw, Oklahoma Country musicians from Oklahoma Western swing performers Western swing fiddlers King Records artists Four Star Records artists 20th-century violinists 20th-century American musicians American country musician stubs.
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