The newly invented Western Electric moving coil or dynamic microphone was part of the Wide Range System. It had a flatter audio response than the old style Wente condenser type and didn't require electronics installed in the microphone housing.
Signals fed to the cutting head were pre-emphasized in the treble region to help override noise in playback. Groove cuts in the vertical plane were employed rather than the usual lateral cuts. The chief advantage claimed was more grooves per inch that could be crowded together, resulting in longer playback time. Additionally, the problem of inner groove distortion, which plagued lateral cuts, could be avoided with the vertical cut system.
Wax masters were made by flowing heated wax over a hot metal disc thus avoiding the microscopic irregularities of cast blocks of wax and the necessity of planing and polishing. Vinyl pressings were made with stampers from master cuts that were electroplated in vacuo by means of gold sputtering. Amplifiers and cutters both using negative feedback were employed thereby improving the range of frequencies cut and lowering distortion levels.
Radio transcription producers such as World Broadcasting System and Associated Music Publishers AMP were the dominant licensees of the Western Electric wide range system and towards the end of the s were responsible for two-thirds of the total radio transcription business. Developmentally, much of the technology of the long playing record, successfully released by Columbia in , came from wide range radio transcription practices.
Goldmark, Rene' Snepvangers and William S. Bachman in made it possible for a great variety of record companies to get into the business of making long playing records. Radio listeners heard recordings broadcast and this in turn generated more record sales.
The industry flourished. Technology used in making recordings also developed and prospered. There were ten major evolutionary steps that improved LP production and quality during a period of approximately forty years. At the time of the introduction of the compact disc CD in , the stereo LP pressed in vinyl was at the high point of its development. Still, it continued to suffer from a variety of limitations:. Audiophiles have differed over the relative merits of the LP versus the CD since the digital disc was introduced.
Modern anti-aliasing filters and oversampling systems used in digital recordings have eliminated perceived problems observed with very early CD players. There is a theory that vinyl records can audibly represent higher frequencies than compact discs, though most of this is noise and not relevant to human hearing.
Due to the distance required between grooves, it is not possible for an LP to reproduce as low frequencies as a CD. High frequency sensitivity decreases as a person ages, a process called presbycusis. For the first several decades of disc record manufacturing, sound was recorded directly on to the "master disc" at the recording studio. From about on earlier for some large record companies, later for some small ones it became usual to have the performance first recorded on audio tape , which could then be processed or edited, and then dubbed on to the master disc.
A record cutter would engrave the grooves into the master disc. Early versions of these master discs were soft wax , and later a harder lacquer was used. The mastering process was originally something of an art as the operator had to manually allow for the changes in sound which affected how wide the space for the groove needed to be on each rotation.
As the playing of gramophone records causes gradual degradation of the recording, they are best preserved by transferring them onto other media and playing the records as rarely as possible. They need to be stored on edge, and do best under environmental conditions that most humans would find comfortable. Where old disc recordings are considered to be of artistic or historic interest, from before the era of tape or where no tape master exists, archivists play back the disc on suitable equipment and record the result, typically onto a digital format, which can be copied and manipulated to remove analog flaws without any further damage to the source recording.
For example, Nimbus Records uses a specially built horn record player  to transfer 78s. Anyone can do this using a standard record player with a suitable pickup, a phono-preamp pre-amplifier and a typical personal computer. However, for accurate transfer, professional archivists carefully choose the correct stylus shape and diameter, tracking weight, equalisation curve and other playback parameters and use high-quality analogue-to-digital converters.
As an alternative to playback with a stylus, a recording can be read optically, processed with software that calculates the velocity that the stylus would be moving in the mapped grooves and converted to a digital recording format. This does no further damage to the disc and generally produces a better sound than normal playback. This technique also has the potential to allow for reconstruction of broken or otherwise damaged discs. Groove recordings, first designed in the final quarter of the 19th century, held a predominant position for nearly a century—withstanding competition from reel-to-reel tape , the 8-track cartridge , and the compact cassette.
In , the compact disc surpassed the gramophone record in unit sales. Vinyl records experienced a sudden decline in popularity between and ,  when the major label distributors restricted their return policies, which retailers had been relying on to maintain and swap out stocks of relatively unpopular titles. First the distributors began charging retailers more for new product if they returned unsold vinyl, and then they stopped providing any credit at all for returns.
Retailers, fearing they would be stuck with anything they ordered, only ordered proven, popular titles that they knew would sell, and devoted more shelf space to CDs and cassettes. Record companies also deleted many vinyl titles from production and distribution, further undermining the availability of the format and leading to the closure of pressing plants.
This rapid decline in the availability of records accelerated the format's decline in popularity, and is seen by some as a deliberate ploy to make consumers switch to CDs, which unlike today, were more profitable for the record companies.
In spite of their flaws, such as the lack of portability, records still have enthusiastic supporters. Vinyl records continue to be manufactured and sold today,  especially by independent rock bands and labels, although record sales are considered to be a niche market composed of audiophiles , collectors , and DJs.
Old records and out-of-print recordings in particular are in much demand by collectors the world over. See Record collecting. Many popular new albums are given releases on vinyl records and older albums are also given reissues, sometimes on audiophile-grade vinyl. In the United States, annual vinyl sales increased by Many electronic dance music and hip hop releases today are still preferred on vinyl; however, digital copies are still widely available.
This is because for disc jockeys "DJs" , vinyl has an advantage over the CD: direct manipulation of the medium. DJ techniques such as slip-cueing , beatmatching , and scratching originated on turntables. With CDs or compact audio cassettes one normally has only indirect manipulation options, e.
With a record one can place the stylus a few grooves farther in or out, accelerate or decelerate the turntable, or even reverse its direction, provided the stylus, record player , and record itself are built to withstand it.
Figures released in the United States in early showed that sales of vinyl albums nearly doubled in , with 1. Sales have continued to rise into the s, with around 2. In artist Jack White sold 40, copies of his second solo release, Lazaretto , on vinyl. The sales of the record beat the largest sales in one week on vinyl since The sales record was previously held by Pearl Jam 's Vitalogy , which sold 34, copies in one week in In , the sale of vinyl records was the only physical music medium with increasing sales with relation to the previous year.
Sales of other mediums including individual digital tracks, digital albums and compact discs have fallen, the last having the greatest drop-in-sales rate.
Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. In , CBS released the CX format, downward compatible for higher dynamic range and noise reduction. VinylVideo was a 45 RPM format to store a low resolution black and white video on record. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the magazine, see Phonograph Record magazine. Disc-shaped vinyl analog sound storage medium. Play media. See also: LP record. Further information: High fidelity. Main article: Laser turntable.
See also: Recording medium comparison. Main article: Unusual types of gramophone records. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. For other uses, see Broken Record disambiguation. Further information: Analog recording vs. Further information: Production of phonograph records. See also: Vinyl revival. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
April Archived from the original on Wired UK. Information Week. The New York Times. The talking phonograph. Scientific American, 14 December, Retrieved Time Inc: 87— Music Educators Journal , Vol.
The Recording and Reproduction of Sound revised and enlarged 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Howard W. London: British Library. Archived PDF from the original on 22 December Retrieved 16 December The New York Times , February 23, , p. Archived at the Wayback Machine Front page. Cambridge University Press. Electronic Folk International. Jazz Latin New Age. Aggressive Bittersweet Druggy. Energetic Happy Hypnotic. Romantic Sad Sentimental. Sexy Trippy All Moods. Drinking Hanging Out In Love.
Boasting 25 great tunes, On a Carousel, The Ultimate Hollies features every song that the Hollies landed in the Top 20 in the United States and the United Kingdom, and the result is 78 minutes of pure pop bliss. The Hollies could rock the house when they were of a mind, as the cracking covers of "Stay" and "Just One Look" that open the set confirm, but it was when the group began following a more polished sound and Allan Clarke , Graham Nash and Tony Hicks locked their trademark harmonies into place that they established their identity as more than just another beat group.
And while many like to give the post- Nash era of the group short shrift, in context, the latter period Hollies hits still sound impressive, proving Nash wasn't the only man of talent in this act. Warren Barnett 's remastering sounds splendid, retaining the punchy original mono mixes on most of the tracks, and Ian McFarlane 's liner notes do a fine job of tracing the group's history through these 11 years.
Blues Classical Country. Electronic Folk International. Jazz Latin New Age. Toys, Games, and Video Games. Boys' Toys. Girls' Toys. Outdoor Play. Shop by Age. Game Night. Clean Living Shop. Shop All Food. Household Essentials. Flu Prevention Buying Guide. Fresh Flowers. Roast to Order Coffee. Custom Cakes. All Pet Supplies. Pet Rx. Pet Summer Shop. Pet Summer Savings.
Premium Pet Food. Pet Smart Tech. New Dog Supplies Buying Guide. New Cat Supplies Buying Guide. Personal Care. Oral Care. Shop All Beauty. Shop All Premium Beauty. New Arrivals. Beauty Tutorials. Beauty Savings. Premium Beauty.
Trending in Beauty. Outdoor Sports. Sports Fan Shop. Shop All Auto. Advance Auto Parts. OEM Parts. Auto Interior. Auto Exterior. Auto Replacement Parts. Auto Lighting. Walmart for Business. Photo Center. Personalized Shop. Personalized Wedding. Personalized Jewelry. Gift Cards. Gift Registry. But the revival did not go without criticism. While reviewers applauded Hytner's gritty interpretation and imaginative staging, they were relatively unimpressed with the cast's vocal abilities.
Bringing only male lead Michael Hayden as Billy Bigelow over from London, Hytner seemed to have been more interested in characterization than singing, and it was notable that, of those five Tonys, only one went to a performer. When you also consider that the London production had already produced a cast album of its own, the prospects for the inevitable Broadway cast album were somewhat dimmed.
On the whole, it isn't as good as the London version, and you can hear what the reviewers were complaining about. The saving grace of the album, as it was the strongest element of the production, is the startling debut of Audra Ann McDonald she later dropped the "Ann" , the show's sole Tony-winning performer. The casting of the African-American McDonald as New Englander Carrie Pipperidge may have been unrealistic or, as the politically correct prefer, "nontraditional" , but she proved a remarkable singer and a magnetic stage presence.
Blues Classical Country. Electronic Folk International. Jazz Latin New Age. Aggressive Bittersweet Druggy. Energetic Happy Hypnotic. Romantic Sad Sentimental. Sexy Trippy All Moods. Drinking Hanging Out In Love. Introspection Late Night Partying. Rainy Day Relaxation Road Trip. Romantic Evening Sex All Themes. Features Interviews Lists.
Streams Videos All Posts.Shop Lonesome Dove [Blu-ray] [2 Discs]  at Best Buy. Find low everyday prices and buy online for delivery or in-store pick-up. Price Match Guarantee.